bangladesh


TVET System

No. of years of Primary Education 8
Major Universities Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, University of Chittagong, Rajshahi University, Brac University, Independent University, North South University
Primary School Enrollment (Total) 18.4 million (2016, UNESCO)
Tertiary School Enrollment (Total) 2.7 million (2016, UNESCO)
Ministry/ Ministries Supervising Education Ministry of Education
Education as % of GDP 2.5% (2016, UNESCO)
Current Education Minister (2018) Nurul Islam Nahid
Agency Handling TVET Directorate of Technical Education (DTE) [under MoE], Bureau of Manpower Employment and Training (BMET) [under Ministry of Expatriates Welfare & Overseas Employment (MoEW&OE)]
Current Head (TVET Agency CEO, Director or Officer-in-charge, 2018) Mr. Ashoke Kumar Biswas
Additional Secretary (Technical), Ministry of Education (MoE)
Director General, Directorate of Technical Education (DTE)
TVET System of Bangladesh As per Article 17 of the Bangladesh Constitution, all children between ages six and 10 years are entitled to free basic education. This has resulted in the literacy rate of Bangladesh to rise to almost 73% as of 2016. In 2015, 16087 schools and 2,363 colleges were getting Monthly Payment Order (MPO) facilities. 27558 Madrasha, and technical and vocational institutions were enlisted for the facilities.

GDP per capita has increased to $1677 in 2018 from under $700 in 1990, which has been attributed to and led by the growth in industry and service sector and assisted by improved human development. It is imperative, however, to produce a highly skilled and more efficient workforce to achieve further, and more rapid economic growth, which is where the role of TVET is so crucial.

In attempts to improve the quality of TVET, projects such as the Skills Development Program (SDP) were implemented by the DTE with co-funding from ADB, Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC), and the Government of Bangladesh. “Skills 21 – empowering citizens for inclusive and sustainable growth” is also another project implemented by multiple ministries in cooperation with the European Union (EU) and the International Labour Organisation (ILO) to help develop reforms in TVET and due to run from January 2017 to December 2020.

bangladesh

Figure 1. Structure of Technical Education in Bangladesh
Note. Figure reprinted from ADB. Retrieved from https://www.adb.org/sites/default/files/publication/167320/tvet-hrd-south-asia-bangladesh.pdf

Government institutions in the different levels of TVET are: (1) Technical Teachers Training College(TTTC), (2) Engineering Colleges, (3) Vocational Teachers Training Institute, (4) Polytechnic Institute, (5) Technical School and College, (6) SSC Vocational with MPO , (7) HSC Business Management with monthly payment order (MPO) Madrasha with MPO (Vocational & Business Management, (8) Non -Government Diploma Institutes, (9) Non-Government Secondary Level and Others Institutes. The total number of accredited TVET institutes is around 7925.

National Skills Development Policy (NSDP):
The NSDP was approved by the Bangladeshi Cabinet in January 2012 to build on other government policies, such as the Education Policy 2009, Non-formal Education Policy 2006, Youth Policy 2003, National Training Policy 2008, and NSDC Action Plan 2008. The NSDP is intended to formulate a clear strategy for skills development in the country; enhance the quality and relevance of skills development; establish a responsive delivery mechanism that services the need of labor markets, individuals and community more efficiently; improve access to skill development and motivate participation from industry and businesses; and enable effective planning, coordination and monitoring of skill development activities by ministries, donors, industry, and public and private providers.
Qualification Framework The National Training and Vocational Qualifications Framework (NTVQF) is a comprehensive, nationally consistent yet flexible for all qualifications in technical and vocational education and training.

The National Training and Vocational Qualifications Framework (NTVQF) is a comprehensive, nationally consistent yet flexible for all qualifications in technical and vocational education and training.
  1. Nationally-recognised competency standards
  2. Competency-Based Training (CBT) Delivery System
  3. Competency Assessment and Certification System (CACS)
If implemented well, the NTVQF benefits employers, students, and the institutions providing the training who will now be delivering nationally recognised qualifications.
Levels of NVQS The comprehensive NTVQF is a flexible framework with eight levels of qualifications.

Table 1. The National Technical & Vocational Qualifications Framework
Level Qualification Description
NTVQF 6 Diploma in Engineering or Equivalent Supervisor/ Middle Level Manager
NTVQF 5 National Skill Certificate 5 (NSC 5) Highly Skilled Worker
NTVQF 4 National Skill Certificate 4 (NSC 4) Skilled Worker
NTVQF 3 National Skill Certificate 3 (NSC 3) Semi-Skilled Worker
NTVQF 2 National Skill Certificate 2 (NSC 2) Medium Skilled Worker
NTVQF 1 National Skill Certificate 1 (NSC 1) Basic Skilled Worker
Pre-Voc 2 National Pre- Vocation Certificate 1, NPVC 2 Pre-Vocation Trainee
Pre-Voc 1 National Pre- Vocation Certificate 1, NPVC 1 Pre-Vocation Trainee
Note. Adapted from National Vocational Qualifications and Certifications System of Bangladesh, by Karim. Retrieved from National Vocational Qualification Systems of CPSC Member Countries 2017, CPSC.
TVET Financing Public and private TVET providers can rely on several financiers, but the sources and funding levels differ for the two types.

The Public TVET institutes are primarily funded from the government budget allocation through the corresponding ministry, which is further divided into two sources. The development budget, funded by the GoB or international donors, is meant to finance the initial costs of setting up new institutes and continue funding until they are operational. After the start-up phase development projects are transferred from the development budget to the revenue budget.

Private TVET providers can be divided into two groups by finance. The first group of providers receive their basic funding through MPO which finances all of the teachers’ salaries. Other recurring expenses are financed by fees and donations. The second group is completely funded privately via fees and donations. They do, however, occasionally run MPO programs alongside their privately funded courses, which can result in cross-subsidization and then lead to “misallocation” of public funds.

References:

Dohmen, D. (2009, September). Financing of Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) in Bangladesh. Retrieved September 4, 2018, from https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---asia/---ro-bangkok/---ilo-dhaka/documents/publication/wcms_120704.pdf

Hasan, K. M. (2016, December 19). Project for skill development launched in Dhaka. Retrieved September 4, 2018, from https://tvetbd.wordpress.com/2016/12/14/project-for-skill-development-launched-in-dhaka/#more-40

Karim, R. (2017). National Vocational Qualification and Certification System of Bangladesh. In National Vocational Qualification Systems of CPSC Member Countries(pp. 61-70). Manila: CPSC. doi:978-971-8557-98-3

Innovative Strategies in Technical and Vocational Education and Training for Accelerated Human Resource Development in South Asia Bangladesh. (2014). Retrieved from https://www.adb.org/sites/default/files/publication/167320/tvet-hrd-south-asia-bangladesh.pdf

National Training and Vocational Qualifications Framework (NTVQF). (2012). Retrieved September 4, 2018, from https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---asia/---ro-bangkok/---ilo-dhaka/documents/publication/wcms_233798.pdf

Skills Development Project (SDP). (n.d.). Retrieved September 4, 2018, from https://www.swisscontact.org/en/projects-and-countries/search-projects/project-archive/skills/project/-/show/skills-development-project-sdp.html

CPSC Membership

Partner Ministry/Organization Department of Technical Education
Ministry of Finance (for membership contributions)
Liaison Officer Mr. Anwar Hossain
Additional Secretary
Economic Relations Division
Ministry of Finance
Sher-e-Bangla Nagar
Dhaka, Bangladesh
Recent Programs Held in the Country 2016: In-country Program on Industry-Academic Collaboration and Partnership. December 11-15, 2016
2015: (1) In-country Program on Industry-Academic Collaboration and Partnership. December 13-17, 2015
(2) International Conference on TVET for Sustainable Development (in collaboration with the Institute of Diploma Engineers, Bangladesh. April 30-May 2, 2015).
2014: In-Country Program on Institutional Management of TVET. September 7-11, 2014.
2013: In-country Program on Strategic Planning of TVET Institutions. November 9-13, 2013.
Ambassador H.E. Asad Alam Siam
Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
Embassy of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh
Manila, The Philippines
Address of Embassy/Consulate in Manila 2nd Floor, HERCO Center, 114 Benavidez Street
Legaspi Village, Makati City, The Philippines

Economy

GDP $229.760 billion (2017 est) 46th
GDP Per Capita $1,292 (2017 est.)
Currency Bangladeshi Taka (BDT) = 100 poisha
Major Exports garments, knitwear, agricultural products, frozen food (fish and seafood), jute and jute goods, leather
Major Imports cotton, machinery and equipment, chemicals, iron and steel, foodstuffs
Major Industries jute, cotton, garments, paper, leather, fertilizer, iron and steel, cement, petroleum products, tobacco, pharmaceuticals, ceramics, tea, salt, sugar, edible oils, soap and detergent, fabricated metal products, electricity, natural gas
Major Export Partners US 13.9%, Germany 12.9%, UK 8.9%, France 5%, Spain 4.7%
Major Import Partners China 22.4%, India 14.1%, Singapore 5.2%
Foreign Exchange Reserves $32.19 billion (2017)
Inflation 6.7%
Population below Poverty Line 12.9% living below $3 a day
Gini Coefficient 32.0 (moderately equal)
Competitiveness Rank 106 (out of 138)
Ease of Doing Business Rank 176 (out of 190)
Employment Rate 95.5% (2013, est.)
Unemployment Rate 4.5% (2013, est.)

Politics

bangladesh-president-abdul-hamidAbdul Hamid

Type of Government Unitary Parliamentary Republic
Head of State Abdul Hamid (President)
Head of Government Sheikh Hasina (Prime Minister)
Legislating Body/Bodies Jatiyo Sangshad (Bangladesh Parliament)

Social Facts

bengali

Time zone UTC +6:00
Human Development Index 0.570 (medium, 142nd out of 180)
Literacy Rate 61.5% (Males: 64.6%; females: 58.5%)
% of people with internet access 14.40% (23,183,372)
Life Expectancy 71.01 years (Males: 69.85, Females: 72.26)
Drives on the Left
Calling code +880
ISO 3166 code BD
Internet TLD .bd