|No. of years of Primary Education||8|
|Major Universities||National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Quaid-i-Azam University, Lahore University of Management Sciences (LUMS), University of Engineering & Technology (UET) Lahore, University of Karachi.|
|Primary School Enrollment (Total)||21.7 million (UNESCO, 2017)|
|Tertiary School Enrollment (Total)||1.94 million (UNESCO, 2017)|
|Ministry/ Ministries Supervising Education||Ministry of Education|
|Education as % of GDP||2.76% (World Bank, 2017)|
|Current Education Minister (2018)||Hon. Shafqat Mahmood|
|Agency Handling TVET||National Vocational and Technical Training Commission (NAVTTC)|
|Current Head (TVET Agency CEO, Director or Officer-in-charge, 2018)||Mr. Zulfiqar A. Cheema
National Vocational and Technical Training Commission (NAVTTC)
|TVET System of Pakistan||The Constitution of Pakistan mandates that all children between ages 5 and 16 are provided free and compulsory education to enhance adult literacy. 260,903 institutes constitute the education system of Pakistan, facilitating 41,018,384 students with the help of 1,535,461 teachers. Hence 31% educational institutes are run by private sector while 69% are public institutes (Ipripak, 2015).
Vocational Education is administered by the Pakistani Technical Education and Vocational Training Authority. The TVET system of Pakistan produces around 315,000 graduates annually, contributing to 5.5% of the almost 60 million large labour force (2016). The remainder usually contribute to workers in the informal sector (about 74% of the total labour force), which is unregulated and features poor remuneration.
The Pakistan’s National Vocational Qualification Framework (NVQF) is responsible for bridging this formal-informal gap divide and allowing the recognition and certification of skills through Recognition of Prior Learning (RPL) and Recognition of Current Competence (RCC). In order to improve the TVET system in Pakistan, the National Vocational & Technical Training Commission (NAVTTC) was established as an apex body and a national regulatory authority for TVET. It has taken the responsibility of addressing the challenges of Technical and Vocational stream in the country and was also involved in policy making, strategy formulation, regulation, and revamping of TVET system. The commission also promotes linkages among various stakeholders at national as well as International level.
Table 1: Enrolment in Technical and Vocational Institutions by Province, type and Gender (Public & Private, 2015-16)
Note. Reprinted from National Vocational Qualification Framework and Certification of Pakistan, by Soomro. Retrieved from National Vocational Qualification Systems of CPSC Member Countries 2017, CPSC.
|Qualification Framework||The National Skills Strategy 2009-2013 (NSS) recommended the migration to competency based training from curriculum based training to equip graduates with relevant skills for the industry and thus improve their employability whilst providing the industry with quality human resources.
The NVQF is intended to provide a distinct pathway for Technical and Vocational Education and Training within the overall national qualification structure. NVQF pre-vocational levels were designed to meet the basic TVET entry needs of the majority of the population with the little or no schooling, and five levels (Level 1 to 5 from certificate to diploma) to provide a clear pathway in TVET and entry into Higher Education degree levels.
The NVQF also defines the skills required for a qualification and determines the equivalence within TVET Sector, allows standardized vocational qualification, provides framework for quality assurance, vertical and horizontal progression for learners, recognition of national and international qualification systems, improvement in quality of training, and increased options for learners in selecting training programs.
|Levels of NVQS||
Figure 1. Structure of NVQF in Pakistan
Note. Figure from National Vocational Qualification Framework and Certification of Pakistan, by Soomro. Retrieved from National Vocational Qualification Systems of CPSC Member Countries 2017, CPSC.
Each level of qualification framework is defined by a set of approved Level Descriptors (Copy enclosed). NVQF is the point of active guidance and integration of five interacting systems which, if properly coordinated ensures the achievement of the NVQF purposes- the qualification development system, the assessment delivery system, the training delivery system, the national skill certification system and national quality assurance system.
|TVET Financing||TVET in Pakistan is funded almost wholly through budget allocations. As additional funding sources are required to satisfy needs, the NSS has proposed the introduction of a training levy paid by employers to offset the shortcomings in public budget.
The quest to achieve and implement a successful TVET framework cannot be achieved without sufficient funding. Historically, emphasis has been placed on general education rather than TVET, and accordingly, funding for skills development has been low. Recently however, provincial and national budget allocations have risen steadily.
Figure 2. Budget Allocation for TVET in Pakistan
Note. Figure from World TVET Database Pakistan, by UNESCO. Retrieved from https://unevoc.unesco.org/wtdb/worldtvetdatabase_pak_en.pdf
Challenges in Financing TVET
In spite of the rising levels of investment in TVET, Pakistan’s investment in TVET remains low – both by international standards and in terms of the challenges that the country must address. Additionally, public funding is allocated primarily towards public TVET institutions, and private institutions have to seek alternative, less viable methods of funding. This raises a fundamental issue about how to secure additional resources to expand and improve the quality of skills development programmes. NAVTTEC works with TEVTAs to mobilise new financial resources through ways of involving the private sector and encouraging TVET institutions to introduce revenue-generating activities.
Education System in Pakistan. (n.d.). Retrieved October 3, 2018, from https://www.scholaro.com/ed/Countries/Pakistan/Education-System
Hussain, A. (2015, March 2). Education System of Pakistan: Issues, Problems and Solutions. Retrieved October 3, 2018, from http://www.ipripak.org/education-system-of-pakistan-issues-problems-and-solutions/
Soomro, F.A. (2017). National Vocational Qualification Framework and Certification of Pakistan. In National Vocational Qualification Systems of CPSC Member Countries(pp. 127-140). Manila: CPSC. doi:978-971-8557-98-3
Skills for Growth & Development A Draft National Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) Policy. (2014, November). Retrieved October 3, 2018, from http://www.moent.gov.pk/mopttm/userfiles1/file/Final Consult Paper of TEVT Policy.pdf
World TVET Database Pakistan. (n.d.). Retrieved November, 2013, from https://unevoc.unesco.org/wtdb/worldtvetdatabase_pak_en.pdf
|Partner Ministry/Organization||National Vocational & Technical Training Commission (NATVTTC)|
|Liaison Officer||Mr. Naeem Iqbal
National Vocational & Technical Training Commission
5th Floor Evacuee Trust Complex
Aga Khan Road, F-5/1, Islamabad, Pakistan
|Recent Programs Held in the Country||2016: International TVET Conference. October 3-4, 2016.
2015: In-Country Program on Developing Monitoring and Evaluation Tools in TVET. March 9-13, 2015.
2012: In-Country Program on Accreditation and Certification of TVET. June 25-29, 2012.
|Ambassador||H.E. Safdar Hayat
Ambassador of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan
|Address of Embassy/Consulate in Manila||6th Floor, Alexander House
132 Amorsolo Street, Legaspi Village
Makati City, Philippines
|GDP (billions)||$ 271.050 billion (Nominal: 43rd, 2015 est.)|
|GDP Per Capita||$1,428 (nominal; 2015)|
|Currency||Pakistan Rupee (PKR) = 100 paisa/rupayya|
|Major Exports||Textiles, Vegetable Products, Mineral, Leather, Food and Beverages, Animal Farming, Metals, Plastic|
|Major Imports||Food, Machinery, Transport Vehicles, Textile, Fertilizers and other chemicals, Raw metal, Refined Petroleum, Crude Petroleum|
|Major Industries||textiles and apparel, food processing, pharmaceuticals, construction materials, chemicals|
|Major Export Partners||United States 13.3%, China 10.9%, United Arab Emirates 8.6%, Afghanistan 8.5%, Germany 5.1% (2015 est.)|
|Major Import Partners||China 17%, United Arab Emirates 15%, Kuwait 8.8%, Saudi Arabia 8.5%, Malaysia 4.8%|
|Foreign Exchange Reserves||$22.434 billion|
|Population below Poverty Line||21%|
|Gini Coefficient||32.8 (moderately equal)|
|Competitiveness Rank||122nd (out 0f 138)|
|Ease of Doing Business Rank||144th (out of 190)|
|Employment Rate||93.5% (2014, est.)|
|Unemployment Rate||6.5% (2014, est.)|
|Type of Government||Federal parliamentary constitutional republic|
|Head of State||Mamnoon Hussain (President)|
|Head of Government||Nawaz Sharif (Prime Minister)|
Upper House: Senate
Lower house: National Assembly