|No. of years of Primary Education||11|
|Major Universities||University of Colombo
University of Kelaniya
University of Moratuwa
University of Ruhuna
University of Sri Jayewardenepura
University of Jaffna
General Sir John Kotelawala Defense University
Eastern University of Sri Lanka
Wayamba University of Sri Lanka
Uva Wellassa University
South Eastern University of Sri Lanka
Open University of Sri Lanka
|Primary School Enrollment (Total)||317,899 (2016)|
|Tertiary School Enrollment (Total)||188,764 (2016)|
|Ministry/ Ministries Supervising Education||Ministry of Education|
|Education as % of GDP||3.49% (2016)|
|Current Head||Hon. Akila Viraj Kariyawasam|
|Agency Handling TVET||Ministry of Skills Development and Vocational Training
(Ministry of National Policies and Economic Affairs)
(Ministry of Higher Education and Highways)
(Ministry of Tourism Development, Land and Christian Development Affairs)
|Current Head (TVET Agency CEO, Director or Officer-in-charge, 2018)||Mrs. P.N.K. Malalasekera
Department of Technical Education and Training
|TVET System of Sri Lanka||
Primary education starts at the age of five and lasts for five years. It is divided into five grades and finishes with the Grade 5 Scholarship and Placement Examination. Secondary education consists of two levels – junior secondary and senior secondary levels. Junior secondary level (grades 6-9) lasts four years while the senior secondary level (grades 10-11) lasts two years. At the end of secondary education, students sit the General Certificate of Education (GCE) Ordinary-level examination which gives access to one to two-year programmes at technical colleges and finishes with a vocational diploma. The GCE examination is followed by the last stage of formal education – the collegiate level – which lasts two years and leads to the GCE Advanced-level examination. Primary education is compulsory. After passing the GCE Advance level examination, students can continue with higher education at universities and national colleges of education or TVET institutions. Bachelor’s degrees usually take three to four years, master’s degrees take two years and doctoral degree programmes take three to five years.
Formal TVET system;
The Formal TVET sector of Sri Lanka comprises 348 public sector training centers and about 670 active private and Non-Governmental Organization (NGO) training centers.
Figure 2. TVET System of Sri Lanka
Note. Figure reprinted from National Vocational Qualifications and Certifications System of Sri Lanka, by Ranjith. Retrieved from National Vocational Qualification Systems of CPSC Member Countries 2017, CPSC.
Non-formal and informal TVET systems;
A large number of non-formal TVET in Sri Lanka focuses on IT and is offered on a fee-levying basis. Nevertheless, there is a widespread network of non-fee levying institutions which are funded through national and international charities.
The National Vocational Qualifications Framework of Sri Lanka (NQVSL) recognizes competencies acquired through informal learning such as:
|Qualification Framework||The National Vocational Qualifications Framework of Sri Lanka (NVQSL) is the key in unifying technical and vocational education and training. Its aim is to ensure that existing and new TVET activities are coordinated. The National Competency Standards (NCS) are prepared in consultation with the industry and curricula, trainer guides, trainee guides and assessment resources are prepared based on the NCS. A competency standard is a document defining competency units pertaining to skills, standards and activities related to acquiring relevant knowledge, competencies and attitudes. Competency units are identified based on industry requirements in a particular occupation.
Assessments are competency-based and the system is benchmarked against qualification systems in developed countries. Competency-based training curricula and related training, learning and assessment materials are included in the framework, together with requirements for registration and accreditation of training providers and their courses.
An operational manual for NVQSL is compiled by the Tertiary and Vocational Education Commission (TVEC) with the assistance of the National Apprentice and Industrial Training Authority (NAITA), Vocational Training Authority (VTA), Department of Technical Education (DTET), National Youth Services Council (NYSC) and National Institute of Technical Education (NITESL). The manual outlines agreed policies and processes for implementation of all competencies as outline in NVQSL. NVQSL comprises of seven qualification levels. Each level describes the learning process and requirements as well as occupational responsibility involved.
|Levels of NVQS||
Note. Table reprinted from National Vocational Qualifications and Certifications System of Sri Lanka, by Ranjith. Retrieved from National Vocational Qualification Systems of CPSC Member Countries 2017, CPSC.
Assessments are conducted by licensed assessors who are hired by accredited training centres where trainees take competency based training courses. Assessors examine trainees’ progress reports, practical and theoretical examination results and other relevant documentation before they admit trainees to NVQ Assessments.
NVQ certificates can also be acquired without completing a competency-based course. The National Apprenticeship and Industrial Training Authority (NAITA) or any other NVQ-accredited public vocational training center can issue NVQ certificates through the Recognition of Prior Learning System (RPL). Candidates are assessed for their competencies before being awarded a NVQ certificate. Assessment includes inspection of supportive documents or, if no documents available, visits at the workplace to conduct practical tests. Tests can also be conducted at training centers if the workplace does not offer adequate conditions. In case of failure to demonstrate required skills and competencies, candidates will be informed about shortcomings and advised on possibilities to upgrade skills to be awarded a NVQ certificate.
|TVET Financing||In Sri Lanka, the private sector is already burdened with heavy taxation which would make the imposition of a training levy difficult. However, marketable skills are most needed by the most underprivileged in society who cannot bear the cost of acquisition of TVET skills.
Therefore, a large proportion of education and training is provided free of charge, together with a daily allowance. Some public training institutions charge fees for high demand courses, such as computing, cosmetology, bakery etc.; and engage in training-related production to generate income. At present the state TVET sector depends heavily on treasury funds and a significant extent on donor/lender funding and interventions for development activities.
|Employed Population & Employment Rates||
Tertiary & Vocational Education Commission (2016), Labor Market, Information Bulletin, Volume 02/16, Colombo, Sri Lanka
Innovative Strategies in Technical and Vocational Education and Training for Accelerated Human Resource Development in South Asia: Sri Lanka. (2014). Retrieved from https://www.adb.org/sites/default/files/publication/176571/tvet-hrd-south-asia-sri-lanka.pdf
Moe.gov.lk. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.moe.gov.lk/english/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1235&Itemid=1055
|Partner Ministry/Organization||Department of Technical Education and Training (DTET)|
|Liaison Officer||Mrs. P.N.K. Malalasekera
Department of Technical Education and Training
Colombo, Sri Lanka
|Recent Programs Held in the Country||2015: In-Country Program on Institutional Management. December 15-19, 2015.
2013: In-Country Program on Total Quality Management. December 2-6, 2013.
2012: In-Country program on Training Needs Analysis. December 10-14, 2012.
2011: (1) Special In-Country Program on Champion Leaders’ Development Program for TVET Skills for Poverty Alleviation. March 28-April 2, 2011. (2) In-Country program on Research and Development. December 19-23, 2011.
|Ambassador||H.E. Aruni Ranaraja
Ambassador of Sri Lanka
|Address of Embassy/Consulate in Manila||No. 505 Rizal Drive
No. 150, 7th Floor, G.C. Corporate Plaza
Legaspi Street, Legaspi Village
Makati City, Philippines
|GDP (billions)||$82.238 billion (Nominal: 67th, 2016 est.)|
|GDP Per Capita||$3,849 (nominal; 2016)|
|Currency||Sri Lankan Rupee (LKR) = 100 cents|
|Major Exports||textiles and apparel, pharmaceuticals, tea, spices, diamonds, emeralds, coconut products, rubber manufactures, fish|
|Major Imports||textile fabrics, mineral products, petroleum, foodstuffs, machinery and transportation equipment|
|Major Industries||processing of rubber, tea, coconuts, tobacco and other agricultural commodities; telecommunications, insurance, banking; tourism, shipping; clothing, textiles; cement, petroleum refining, information technology services, construction|
|Major Export Partners||United States 26.1%, United Kingdom 9%, India 7.2%, Germany 4.3% (2015)|
|Major Import Partners||India 24.6%, China 20.6%, UAE 7.1%, Singapore 5.9%, Japan 5.7% (2015)|
|Foreign Exchange Reserves||$7.2 Billion|
|Population below Poverty Line||4.3%|
|Gini Coefficient||36.4% (2015)|
|Ease of Doing Business Rank||110th (out of 190)|
|Employment Rate||95.7% (2016, est.)|
|Unemployment Rate||4.3% (2016, est.)|
|Type of Government||Unitary semi-presidential constitutional republic|
|Head of State||Maithripala Sirisena (President)|
|Head of Government||Ranil Wickremesinghe (Prime minister)|
|Legislating Body/Bodies||Sri Lankan Parliament|